Can we reach rural women via mobile phone? Kenya case study

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WFP/Kusum Hachhethu

 

A few months ago, we published a blog post on our plans to test collecting nutrition data through SMS in Malawi and through live voice calls in Kenya. We just got back from Kenya where we conducted a large-scale mode experiment with ICRAF to compare nutrition data collected face-to-face with data collected through phone calls placed by operators at a call center. But before we started our experiment, we did a qualitative formative study to understand rural women’s phone access and use.

We traveled to 16 villages in Baringo and Kitui counties in Kenya, where we conducted focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with women. We also conducted key informant interviews with mobile phone vendors, local nutritionists, and local government leaders.

So in Kenya, can rural women be reached via mobile phone?

Here are the preliminary findings from our qualitative study:

  1. Ownership: Women’s phone ownership is high in both counties. However, ownership was higher in Kitui than Baringo, which is more pastoralist. From our focus group discussions and interviews, we estimate that 80-90% of women own phones in Kitui and 60-70% own phones in Baringo.
  1. Access: The majority of women had access to phones through inter- and intra-household sharing even if they didn’t own one themselves. This suggests that even women who don’t own a phone personally have access to phones that they may be able to use to participate in phone surveys.
  1. Usage: Women mostly use phones to make and receive calls, not send SMS. This supports our hypothesis that voice calls, not SMS, would be the optimal modality to reach women through mobile surveys.
  1. Willingness: Women were enthusiastic about participating in phone surveys during our focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, implying that they are interested in phone surveys and willing to take part.
  1. Trust: Unknown numbers create trust issues, but they are not insurmountable. Women voiced concerns about receiving phone calls from unknown numbers. Despite these trust issues, we were eventually able to successfully conduct our phone surveys after sensitizing the community, using existing community and government administration structures.
  1. Network: Poor network coverage, not gender norms or access, is the biggest barrier to phone surveys in the two counties. Women identified network coverage as the biggest barrier for communication. Some parts of the counties had poor to no network coverage. However, we found that phone ownership was high even in these areas, and women would travel to find network hotspots to make or receive phone calls.

So in conclusion, yes, in Kenya it is possible to reach rural women by phone.
Our findings from Kitui and Baringo counties show that we can reach women in similar contexts with mobile methodologies to collect information on their diet as well as their child’s diet.

We are also analysing the quantitative data from our mode experiment to find out whether data on women and children’s diet collected via live phone operators gives the same results as data collected via traditional face-to-face interviews.

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