No “one size fits all”

DRC Part 1: Monitoring nutrition in South Kivu

Access issues in South Kivu WFP/Kusum Hachhethu

Access issues in South Kivu
WFP/Kusum Hachhethu

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a vast country, roughly the size of Western Europe. It’s therefore no surprise that implementing mVAM, even in one country, requires a lot of adaptation. When we want to introduce new tools or indicators or want to implement our existing tools in a new setting, we can’t just assume that what has worked before will work in the same way in a new context.

A few weeks ago, two mVAMers, Kusum and Jean-Baptiste, went to Kasai and South Kivu in DRC to scope out how feasible it is to use mobile monitoring in some of the most remote or conflict-ridden regions of the country and how our tools could be adapted to support WFP’s work in these areas.

In Part 1, we follow Kusum into the South Kivu region of DRC where we want to improve nutrition monitoring for women:

In South Kivu, a lack of real-time, regular data on the nutritional status of women and children makes monitoring and programming difficult. The WFP country office therefore wanted to explore alternative methods of data collection, which would allow them to receive updates more quickly, regularly and at a reduced cost. But before regular mobile data collection can take place, we have to go through a process of assessing the feasibility and validity of our methods by conducting a scoping mission followed by a mode experiment. In South Kivu, we visited two sites: Lusenda IDP camp and Bunyakiri town.

Focus group discussions with women in South Kivu WFP/Kusum Hachhethu

Focus group discussions with women in South Kivu
WFP/Kusum Hachhethu

Careful scoping is necessary to understand how feasible it is to contact women using mobile phones as low phone ownership rates among women and potential gender norms may prevent women from participating in phone surveys – an issue which we encountered in Kenya. In both settings we wanted as much information as possible to ensure that our feasibility study was sufficiently rigorous. We therefore conducted focus groups and interviews with women, men, and young people, and key informant interviews with camp managers, government partners, and field staff.

What we found was that while very few women in these locations own a personal mobile phone, most women have access to household phones. The findings from our feasibility nutrition study in Kenya were similar, so from our experiences there, we can assume that with prior notice to community leaders before phone calls and appropriate sensitisation activities with men, we would be able to reduce the barriers to reaching women.

However, apart from the factors we need to take into account specifically when trying to contact women, there are also some general challenges we need to address when using mobile methods to reach people in South Kivu. Many people in the Lusenda camp use Burundian SIM cards to stay in touch with relatives in Burundi and will be charged roaming costs when receiving or making phone calls from a call centre based in  DRC. Another challenge is that network coverage is highly variable even within these locations. For example, while it is excellent in the central market area of the camp, it is very poor in the new refugee settlement areas.

Lusenda IDP camp WFP/Kusum Hachhethu

Lusenda IDP camp
WFP/Kusum Hachhethu

In view of these challenges, maintaining an adequate response rate will require perseverance and some adjustments. For instance, it is important to contact women from camp households using our Burundi phone line rather than the DRC one. To increase the response rate, we will also need to send out reminders to community leaders about the upcoming survey and to make multiple phone call attempts at different times of the day and different times of the week.

The next step in South Kivu will be to conduct a mode experiment, which will allow us to understand if there is a potential bias when collecting nutrition data remotely using phone interviews. This mode experiment will also help us understand if there are any differences in the the socio-economic characteristics between among households with and without phones that would bias our results.

If all goes well, step two will be regular data collection of the nutrition indicator Minimum Dietary Diversity of Women (MDD-W) using live calls to conduct trends analysis and monitor the nutritional status of women. At the end of this long process, from scoping out the feasibility of using mVAM for nutrition monitoring to collecting data regularly, the information can be used to inform programmes and policies to improve the nutritional status of women and children in South Kivu.

Stay tuned for part 2 of our blog mini-series on DRC, in which we follow Jean-Baptiste into the Kasai region!

Dust, sand, hospitality and technology

In her position as a Monitoring and Evaluation Officer in Niamey, Niger, Marisa Muraskiewicz thrives on the opportunity to make a positive impact on women’s lives through mobile technologies… and in the process she quickly discovered that there is a lot more than meets the eye in Niger!

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WFP/Marisa Muraskiewicz

My first time in Niger was in 2015 when I went on a three-week mission to the country as part of my work with the global Food Security Cluster based at WFP’s Headquarters in Rome. My first impressions of the country included a lot of dust and sand, but I equally took home with me fond memories of my colleagues and the dynamic work environment there.

About a year later, an opening for a Junior Professional Officer position came up in Niger and I jumped at the chance. For the past one and a half years I have been working on strengthening WFP’s mobile food security monitoring in the country and my work is varied and fulfilling.

We conduct bi-monthly phone surveys on household food consumption and coping strategies, and ask traders about the availability and prices of products on the markets. We have also completed three rounds of data collection on nutrition indicators. My job is to design the questionnaires, supervise data collection by the call center, analyse data, and produce reports in which we share our key findings and which enable WFP to respond efficiently and effectively.

But our goal is not only to collect data from communities that are experiencing food insecurity – we also want to share information that is useful for them. To that end, we’re currently setting up a two-way communication system using Interactive Voice Response (IVR) technology and a Free Basics website, through which we will be able to share, for instance, the market prices of various goods back to the communities.

Coordination between different WFP offices, government organisations, and companies is another key feature of my work here. For example, I’m currently working on creating a partnership between WFP, the government of Niger, and Airtel, a mobile network operator. Our goal is to be able to conduct analyses of call detail records (CDR) – key metadata from phone calls – which will help us to map the directionality and duration of migration events driven by conflict or drought. This will allow WFP to efficiently allocate resources and target assistance to the most vulnerable areas.

WFP/Marisa Muraskiewicz

WFP/Marisa Muraskiewicz

But it is speaking directly with people which has brought the most meaning to my work. Before we implement our mobile data collection technologies, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of how affected populations can be reached and what their information needs are. To this end, I have traveled widely within the country, including to the volatile Diffa region. Visiting some of the remote villages where mVAM activities are in place always leaves a lasting impression.

Recently, I interviewed 20 women in the Diffa region in their houses – each woman warmly welcomed us into her home, usually a single room house without electricity or effective protection from rainfall. Back in Niamey, the impressions of these encounters motivate me to work towards providing a service that can make a positive contribution in these women’s lives.

There are of course plenty of challenges along the way, including low mobile phone ownership rates and limited access to the internet. But these technologies are becoming increasingly affordable in Niger and offer a huge potential for people. They offer access to important information, such as distribution dates, entitlements, nutrition, and food prices, which can empower people to make informed decisions on food purchases and consumption. Internet access also increases opportunities for employment as people are, for example, able to set up websites to sell their goods. It is fulfilling for me to be able to contribute to the benefits that people can reap through increased access to mobile phones and the internet.

2017 Highlights

It’s been a busy year for us here at mVAM, but some things stood out among all the rest. Here, we take you through some of our highlights from 2017:

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Staff from several countries take part in an mVAM workshop in Kigali, August 2017

1: mVAM for everyone! Our free and open online course

After four years of testing, designing and deploying remote data collection projects, we partnered with Leiden University to develop an online course to share what we’ve learned so far. Our Remote Food Security Monitoring online course was launched in May, and aims to provide a clear understanding of what remote food security monitoring entails, when it is a useful tool, and how to implement a remote food security monitoring project. The course is free and self-paced, and open to anyone who is interested in setting up a remote data collection project.

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WFP/Jean-Martin Bauer

2: Expanding across Asia and the Pacific

During 2017, we kept growing, scaling up in the Asia/Pacific region. WFP’s Nepal and Sri Lanka country offices collaborated with their respective national government partners to launch  mobile-based food security monitoring systems. Nepal’s mNekSAP was the first to use an innovative dual-mode approach to collect data from a panel of households previously surveyed during a baseline assessment, combining remote mobile data collection with traditional face-to-face methods so as to not miss out on following up with those households without a phone. This means that the data gathered through mNEKSAP is not only representative (ensuring coverage of non-phone owners), but through re-interviewing the same individuals, it also provides us with a rare panel data set, which is optimum.      

Afghanistan, Myanmar and Papua New Guinea kept busy with ongoing mobile data collection. Afghanistan now uses mVAM to conduct several different types of surveys, from conflict rapid assessments, to market monitoring, to post-distribution monitoring. Most recently, they launched their first round of nutrition data collection for the Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) indicator – stay tuned for results!

Meanwhile in PNG, their 4th nationwide survey introduced the Food Insecurity Experience Scale – an official SDG 2.1.2 indicator. Our hope is that we can use mVAM to help measure progress in this area.  Also in the region, we’ve been looking at ways to use the PRISM system to better visualize mVAM data and link it to other information sources. More on that in 2018!

WFP/Maria Muraskiewicz

WFP/Maria Muraskiewicz

3: Keeping up with remote nutrition data collection

We’re also expanding in terms of the type of data we use mVAM to collect. Following the success of last year’s remote nutrition data collection pilot in Kenya, we’ve moved on testing whether this is also feasible in Malawi and Niger, and which technologies we can use to collect the data.

From October 2016 to April 2017, we worked with GeoPoll in Malawi to develop a tool and methodology for collecting MDD-W data using SMS surveys. We conducted five rounds of surveys, during which we constantly adapted the indicator to make sure it was suitable for SMS surveys. We learned that the design of the questions was especially important – simple questions, a mix of open-ended and list-based questions, and the option to take the survey in the respondent’s preferred language proved particularly helpful.

In Niger, we tested the feasibility of using CATI to collect MDD-W data in IDP camps in the conflict-affected Diffa region. Through focus groups and in-depth interviews, it became evident that despite low phone ownership rates among women, most women do have access to phones through sharing with household members or neighbours. Men had little hesitation to women in their families being called when they were informed in advance, when female operators were used, and when the operators identified themselves as calling from WFP.. We’re now analysing the data we collected through both F2F and CATI, in order to understand potential mode effects and selection bias.

(For a full overview of our nutrition work, check out Episode 12 of VAM Talks!)

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4: Responsible data (collection, storage, sharing and distribution!)

Mobile data projects come with their own particular set of risks and challenges with regards to data privacy and protection. In a time when reports of data breaches seem to occur more and more frequently, what steps should we take to ensure that we aren’t accidentally putting the very people we are trying to assist at risk? Working with the International Data Responsibility Group (IDRG) and Leiden University’s Centre for Innovation, we developed a field book for Conducting Mobile Surveys Responsibly, which outlines the main risks of mobile data collection and provides guidelines for responsible data collection, storage, processing and distribution in complex humanitarian contexts. In December, we brought together experts on three different continents for a webinar on Responsible Mobile Data Collection, in which they discussed the challenges of remote data collection projects and shared best practices, tools, and tips for adhering to privacy and protection guidelines – from the field level to the WFP context and across the broader humanitarian and development sphere.  

Testing the chatbot in Nigeria

WFP/Seokjin Han

5: Communicating both ways: WFP speaks to …

As mobile technology continued to develop, we looked at ways to use new tools to allow the people we serve to start conversations with us about their own food security situations. In addition to getting information that we can use to improve the design of food assistance programmes, we want to ensure that the line is open so that people in the communities we serve can contact us and access information that is useful to them. In 2017, we continued the development of our two 2-way communications tools – a food security chatbot, and Free Basics, a platform which allows people to access certain sites on the internet at no data cost.

The start of the year saw us in New York where one of our partners, Nielsen, organized a hackathon to design a chatbot that could help collect information during a humanitarian response. Over the course of the year, we worked on developing use cases in different contexts – in Haiti , Nigeria and Kenya – and are now developing a chatbot builder with another partner of ours, InSTEDD. We look forward to deploying the bot in the new year.

Simultaneously, we expanded Free Basics after successfully piloting it in Malawi in November 2016; sites will soon go live in Rwanda, DRC and Niger. Back in Malawi, the original site, which started out as a free website to share weekly staple food prices, is now shifting its focus to address the needs of the more than 30,000 refugees and asylum seekers hosted in the country. The majority of the group lives in two camps where WFP provides food assistance in the form of monthly in-kind distributions and cash-based transfers. As their ability to move outside of the camps where they currently live is quite limited, having information not only about food prices in their immediate area but also food stocks is incredibly helpful.

Thank you to our partners and donors, without whose support none of this would be possible, and to you – our readers – for following along! See you in 2018!

Postcard from Niamey

WFP/Maria Muraskiewicz

WFP/Marisa Muraskiewicz

What you might have missed since our last report

We are back in Niamey, the capital of Niger, where the Harmattan wind is raging through the desert landscape. Although this is the ‘cooler’ season of the year, temperatures easily reach upwards of 38/39 degrees Celsius (100+ degrees Fahrenheit) at the height of the day.

Quite a few things have changed since we last reported on Niger. Moustapha, the VAM Officer, transferred to Nigeria, leaving the mVAM endeavours in Niger in the capable hands of Marisa, Herizo, and team. And boy have they been keeping busy! Thanks to their diligent efforts, three types of mVAM surveys are being implemented today: (1) a bi-monthly household survey; and (2) a key informant trader survey, both of which collect data in the volatile Diffa Region, which has been affected by the Boko Haram crisis; and (3) a nationwide household food security survey that covers hotspot sentinel sites. In addition, the team recently completed its first trial round to collect data for two nutrition indicators in the Diffa Region – the Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) and the Minimum Acceptable Diet (MAD) indicators – to examine the feasibility of collecting nutrition data through mobile surveys in the Niger context (more on this will be shared in a separate blog entry in the future).

But perhaps the best way to appreciate the progress the Niger team has made while acknowledging the lingering challenges for mVAM in the country, is to pick up the discussion where we left off last time.

Connectivity, still a major challenge

While there is 3G in Niamey and the surrounding urban areas and calls can be placed in remote rural areas, poor connectivity compounded by frequent power cuts remains a big challenge in Niger. The call center that carries out the CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing) surveys often has to call the same number at least ten times before it reaches the respondents. They’ve even installed a generator that can serve as a back-up in the event of sudden electricity outages. Meanwhile, the IT team within the WFP Niger Country Office has been in discussions with major mobile network operators in the country to identify solutions for better coverage, including the use of satellite channels. Whilst this expensive alternative is not available to the poorest and most vulnerable communities, we are hoping that more public and private investments will be made to improve overall connectivity in the future.

Marisa Niger2

WFP/Marisa Muraskiewicz

Connecting to women, no small feat

We also reported last time that very few women own their own mobile phone in Niger, and some don’t even have the right to receive a call without their husband’s permission. Following best practices from other countries that are facing similar challenges, the call center conducted the last round of CATI surveys employing only female operators and witnessed a slight improvement in female response rates. Nonetheless, the average female response rate is still less than ten percent, so we need to continue to step up our sensitization and outreach efforts.

New mVAM tools coming to Niger: Numero verte & IVR AND Free Basics

On the bright side, we have been able to configure the IVR (Interactive Voice Response) software (Verboice) and connect it to a Numero verte – a four digit toll-free phone number – which can handle multiple incoming calls from various local network operators simultaneously. This hotline number will boost WFP Niger’s capacity to receive complaints and feedback from beneficiaries and take action when needed, bringing us closer to the communities we are supporting. Meanwhile, a new Free Basics site is in the making, which will allow us to share up-to-date market price information and tips on good nutrition and health practices with families and communities. So we are happy to admit that we were wrong last time when we said we didn’t think we would be using any of our ‘fancy’ tools in Niger any time soon!

Angie Niger

WFP/Angie Lee

A bright future for mVAM in Niger

As remarkable as the achievements of Niger’s team have been over the past year, there are no plans to stop! They are working on new activities that will make mVAM even more relevant for reaching the goals of WFP in Niger and our partners. In the coming months, the team will focus on working closer with the government, which has a keen interest in deploying mobile technologies for food security monitoring and early warning, as well as scaling up mVAM to expand our market monitoring activities.

mVAM for nutrition: findings from Kenya

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Photo: WFP/Kusum Hachhethu

We’ve used mVAM to collect data on a range of things that impact food security – so what about information on nutrition? Back in October, we went to Kenya to conduct a study on whether we could use remote mobile data collection to gather information on women and children’s nutrition.

The summary of our findings from the case study are now available in a new report from mVAM and our partners in the study, WFP’s Nutrition Division and the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF).

Read more:

kenya-report

Our 5 mVAM Highs from 2016

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1. Awards for Remote Mobile Data Collection Work

At the Humanitarian Technology 2016 conference, our paper Knowing Just in Time Knowing Just in Time’ won Best Paper for Outstanding Impact. In the paper, we assessed mVAM’s contribution to decision-making by looking at use cases for mVAM in camps, conflict settings and vulnerable geographies. Check out our blog Tech for Humanity for more on it and our other conference paper  mVAM: a New Contribution to the Information Ecology of Humanitarian Work

To close the year, we had a nice surprise from Nominet Trust, the UK’s leading tech for good funder. We made their 100 most inspiring social innovations using digital technology to drive social change around the world.  

2. New Tech

In this day and age there’s a lot of buzz around data visualization. We’ve been honing our skills with Tableau. Check out the data visualizations we did for Yemen and Haiti.

We’re also in the era of Big Data. We partnered with Flowminder, experts in analyzing call detail records, to track displacement in Haiti after Hurricane Matthew.  Find out more in ‘After the storm: using big data to track displacement in Haiti

We’re also super excited about the chatbot we started developing for messaging apps and our roll out of Free Basics in Malawi which is allowing us to share the food prices we collect in mVAM surveys with people in Malawi With mVAM, our main focus has been reaching people on their simple feature phones. But we know that smartphone ownership is only going to increase. Contacting people through internet-enabled phones opens up loads of new forms of communication and data collection. is still reaching people on their -free basics

3. Expansion!

mVAM expanded to 16 new countries facing a wide set of challenges: conflict, El Nino drought, hurricanes, extremely remote geographies. We’ve been tracking and learning about what remote mobile data collection can add to food security monitoring systems and what its limits are in different contexts. For some of the highlights, check out our blogs on Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, and  El Nino in Southern Africa,

4. Dynamic Partnerships

To have a lasting impact, we need to work with governments. We are really proud of our partnership with CAID, the Cellule d’Analyses des Indicateurs du Développement  under the Prime Minister’s Office in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We collaborated on setting up a national market monitoring system- mKengela that they are now running. We’ve had intensive technical sessions with the CAID team in Rome and Kinshasa to work on solutions that will fit their data management and analysis needs. The CAID team even traveled to Johannesburg to share their remote mobile data experience with other African countries and help other governments use this technology.

We’re also working with Leiden University. Bouncing ideas off of their team at the Centre for Innovation helps us move forward on tricky challenges. We’re also collaborating with them to develop an online course where we’re going to share our methodologies and how to use remote technology to monitor food security. Check out Welcome to Vamistan for more.

We are in the field of tech. So we can’t do our job well without partnering with the private sector. It’s definitely a dynamic area, and also one where we at mVAM are learning what works best in melding our humanitarian goals with the exciting private tech potential out there. Check out our blog From the Rift Valley to Silicon Valley and our hackathon with Data Mission for more.

5. Learning- the neverending process

In addition to trying out new technology, we’ve been trying to answer some important questions about the live calls, SMS, and IVR surveys which make up the bulk of mVAM data collection.  We’re also doing mode experiments to understand how people answer differently based on which mode we use to contact them. Check out our first Mind the Mode article with more coming in 2017. In Kenya, we are looking into whether we can ask nutrition indicators through mVAM methods. A major challenge is reaching women through phone surveys so we organized a gender webinar with partners to learn from what they are doing- check out our key gender takeaways. These are key questions and they can’t be resolved overnight. But we’re making steady progress in understanding them, and we’re excited for what more we’ll find out in 2017.

Thanks to everyone who has supported our work this year and kept up with our blog!

#data4food: Join us for the first mVAM Webinar!

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Join us on Monday for the first of our webinar series! We’ll be hosting a discussion with experts in the fields of mobile data collection, gender, and data analysis:

Addressing Gender-related Challenges in Remote Mobile Data Collection


12 December 2016
9am EST/2pm Dakar/3pm Rome/5pm Nairobi 

 

The discussion will explore some key issues that arise in remote mobile data collection, such as:

  1. Women’s Participation: How can we engage more women when conducting surveys via mobile phone? How can qualitative research help improve female participation rates?
  1. Analyzing Data for Zero Hunger: How do low female participation rates bias our data and thus our ability to design effective, evidence-based programmes? Given the barriers to women’s participation, what can we do right now to analyze our data in a way that better represents women’s experiences? Are we even asking the right questions?
  1. Mobile’s Potential: What are the untapped possibilities for using remote mobile data collection to collect information on both men’s and women’s experiences (e.g. protection issues like anonymous reporting of gender-based violence)? What are the limitations?

Panelists:

  • Joyce Luma, Country Director, WFP South Sudan (former head of WFP Trends and Analysis Service): Gender, mobile phone surveys, and data analysis for Zero Hunger
  • Sangita Vyas, Managing Director, r.i.c.e. (Research Institute for Compassionate Economics): Methodologies for capturing women’s experiences in mobile phone surveys in India
  • Micah Boyer, University of South Florida: Women, markets, and mobile phones in the Sahel
  • Kusum Hachhethu, WFP mVAM Team and Nutritionist, Qualitative research for using mVAM to reach rural Kenyan women

 

To join the webinar, connect via this link:

https://www.bigmarker.com/world-food-programme/Gender-Remote-Mobile-Data-Collection

 

Are you on Twitter? Participate in the discussion on Monday with the hashtag #data4food

 

Can mobiles be used to monitor nutrition?

WFP/Trust Mlambo

We told you in a recent blog post that we will be adding nutrition indicators to the existing data that we collect using our mobile modalities. We are thrilled to announce that this is finally happening!

Monitoring nutrition: why it’s important

Undernutrition is a huge global problem. Worldwide, 800 million people are calorie deficient and about two billion suffer from micronutrient malnutrition – not having the essential vitamins and minerals. Women and young children are at the greatest risk – nearly half of all deaths in children under five, or 3.1 million child deaths annually, are linked to undernutrition. Malnutrition in the first 1,000 days (from conception to child’s 2nd birthday) can cause irreversible damage to children’s brains and growth.

We have recently seen a lot of high-level political commitments to address undernutrition. However, one of the biggest challenges to turn the commitments into action has been the lack of timely data for effective programming. This is where our mVAM modalities could help: voice calls, SMS or IVR could be used to collect data for nutrition surveillance (especially in hard-to-reach areas). Potentially, mVAM tools could help provide real-time information to help manage nutrition programs. Over the coming months, we’ll try testing this approach.

Mobile data has worked for food security indicators. Will it work for children’s nutrition?

WFP/Nancy Aburto

In the past, we have tested various mobile methodologies to demonstrate that it can be used to gather credible data on food security. In the last few years whilst expanding to 26 countries we’ve learnt that remote data collection is fast, cost-effective and the most efficient way to collect information, especially in hard-to-reach areas. The results of our experiments show that live voice calls and SMS are complementary and can be useful in different contexts. We are testing both how both mobile methodologies could collect data on nutrition indicators. In Southern Africa, we are going to be trying a nutrition survey using SMS and in Eastern Africa, we will be comparing the results on nutrition indicators from face-to-face and live phone call interviews.

The challenge of monitoring nutrition by mobile

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WFP/Mica Jenkins

To date, mVAM has collected information about household food consumption and coping strategies. This usually involves calling randomly selected people. We also call trusted key informants that tell us about food security in their community. Nutrition is different because we’re looking for information about women of reproductive age and children under five. Mothers of children of that age are also a relatively small group, and the challenge will be reaching such a small demographic and ensuring  their participation.  

How do you actually monitor nutrition?

You might be wondering how we go about monitoring nutritional status. Undernutrition results from a combination of immediate, underlying and basic determinants – diseases and inadequate dietary intake are the two immediate determinants of undernutrition, and food security is one the three underlying determinants of undernutrition. While there are many underlying causes of undernutrition, dietary quality is a very important determinant of nutritional adequacy; therefore our efforts will be focused on monitoring dietary quality of women and young children.

2-Mica Jenkins

WFP/Mica Jenkins

In the first phase, in line with the 1000 days initiative,  we will be testing two internationally validated indicators. The first indicator we have decided to collect data on is Minimum Acceptable Diet (MAD) (MAD).  This is one of the globally validated indicators to assess Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF). It collects information on both the minimum feeding frequency and the appropriate minimum dietary diversity for various age groups. The other indicator we are going to collect is the Minimum Dietary Diversity-Women (MDD-W) that collects information about whether or not women 15-49 years of age have consumed at least five out of ten defined food groups the previous day or night. This will allow us to assess the diversity of women’s diets, an important dimension of their diet quality. This information is crucial, not just because inadequate dietary intake is an immediate cause of undernutrition, but also because dietary diversity is correlated with many other aspects of food insecurity. Eventually, we will also explore using other indicators of maternal and child undernutrition, as well as other mobile methodologies.

We’re aware that others have tested mobile to collect nutrition data (see an interesting paper in the mHealth series about testing SMS for IYCF indicators in China, published in 2013). We look forward to building on these lessons. We are very excited to collaborate with our internal and external partners to test the indicators. Stay tuned to know more about how we are bringing an innovation in nutrition and food security monitoring!